Build Your Vocabulary

Use Context Clues There are several types of context clues that will help you guess the meaning of words you do not know. By looking at the words around an unfamiliar word, you may be able to figure out its meaning. See the four kinds of context clues on the next page. In the examples, the vocabulary words are in boldface. The context clues are in italics.

1. The word may be defined in the sentence. Sometimes the definition is set off by commas or dashes. Other times it is not.

EXAMPLE: There is still a tie that binds Americans together. That tie is a sense of national identity—of being an American.

EXAMPLE: A quota system was established that specified the number of immigrants that could come from each country.

2. There may be a synonym used in the same sentence.

EXAMPLE: Native Americans belong to separate and distinct Indian nations, each with its own language, culture, and even government.

3. There may be a comparison or contrast with a word (or a phrase) more familiar to you.

Example: As the minority, nonwhite population of the United States continues to grow, the white majority grows smaller.

4. The sentence may give an example that helps you figure out the meaning.

EXAMPLE: Tocqueville, however, was a neutral observer and saw both the good and bad sides of these qualities.

A. Use the context clues to figure out the meaning of the boldfaced words in the sentences above. Then write the correct word next to its definition.

___________ 1. a limit on the number allowed

___________ 2. a group of people whose race is different from that of most

people in a country

___________ 3. someone who observes without expressing an opinion

___________ 4. the qualities a group of people have that make them different

from other people

___________ 5. clearly different or separate

B. Now fill in the blanks with some of the boldfaced words above to complete the paragraph.

What qualities give people a national __________________ ? Do they have to

have characteristics that are__________________ from those of other countries?

2

The people who are part of a_________________ group may feel they have a set

of characteristics that differ from those of the majority in their country.

More AWL Words Test your knowledge of these additional AWL words in the reading by doing the puzzle below. First match the AWL words with their definitions. Then find the AWL words in the puzzle and circle them. Words may run horizontally, vertically, diagonally, or backwards.

1. aspect

a. a large organization, especially one dedicated to

public service

2. category

b. to start something that will continue

3. concept

c. to be different

4. debate

d. one part of an, idea that has many parts

5. establish

e. to continue in spite of difficulties

6. estimate

f. group of things that all have the same qualities

7. hypothesis

g. to judge by calculating and guessing

8. incidentally

h. one of a kind

9. institution

i. an idea

10. survive

j. an explanation not yet proven

11. unique

k. a discussion of different opinions

12. vary

1. by the way

N

N

F

В

E

S

T

A

В

L

1

S

H

F

L

S

1

S

E

H

T

0

P

Y

H

0

D

В

A

V

M

M

L

U

N

1

Q

U

E

V

Z

U

1

Z

1

R

E

C

E

Y

D

E

M

P

T

R

A

в

L

u

1

P

u

C

Q

G

G

M

H

V

E

J

J

Z

N

W

V

s

U

R

V

1

V

E

1

Z

G

G

0

Y

Y

L

L

A

T

N

E

D

1

c

N

1

1

R

E

1

1

M

R

К

T

T

N

Z

0

S

T

0

T

E

Q

Y

V

X

M

s

В

T

M

G

u

G

A

w

T

D

F

Y

К

X

A

0

Y

о

T

E

M

M

F

A

<&_

S

P

E

c

T)

о

E

1

T

1

N

N

E

В

H

N

P

R

0

P

Y

T

A

T

К

1

U

X

E

u

V

s

U

N

К

s

C

s

s

E

К

X

A

D

1

D

G

0

D

N

V

E

V

A

R

Y

К

N

V

z

F

V

R

1

T

P

E

c

N

0

C

u

J

w

Understand Prefixes Recognizing the meaning of a prefix, a group of letters added to the beginning of a word (or its root), will also help you guess the meaning of a new word. For example, the prefix re- means again (reunification) and the prefix /ий – means wrong {misunderstand).

Each of the boldfaced words in the sentences below has a prefix. Identify the prefix and write its meaning. Use a dictionary, if necessary.

EXAMPLE: Before the 1960s, the majority of immigrants to the United States were Europeans, but changes in immigration laws resulted in large numbers of non-Europeans.

Prefix: ___ non____ Meaning: ___________

1. Estimates were that in addition to legal immigration, illegal immigration was adding more than a half a million more people per year.

Prefix: _________ Meaning: ___________

2. In some parts of the country with established communities that share a common language or culture, bilingualism and biculturalism continue. Cultural pluralism is more accepted now than in the first half of the twentieth century, and many of the school systems have developed bilingual programs and multicultural curricula.

Prefix:__________ Meaning: ___________

Prefix: _________ Meaning: ___________

3. People may migrate to another location in order to find work. While many people immigrate to the United States each year, very few Americans choose to emigrate to another country to live.

Prefix: _________ Meaning: ___________

Prefix: _________ Meaning: ___________

4. In the census of 2000, there were nineteen racial categories to choose from. The number of interracial marriages is increasing. . . and the majority of young people believe it does not matter which race they marry.

Prefix:__________ Meaning: ___________

Word Partners Certain words and phrases tend to go together in English, for example, ethnic diversity or traditional values. This is called collocation. Learning these word partners will increase your ability to use new words correctly and help you express yourself as native speakers do.

Read the sentences below. Then match the adjectives on the left with their noun partners on the right. Use the collocations to complete the sentences.

1. established

a. immigrants

2. significant

b. culture

3. neutral

c. communities

4. industrialized

d. pluralism

5. legal

e. hypotheses

6. dominant

f. countries

7. cultural

g. factor

8. working

h. observer

1. In parts of the country with____ established communities_______ that share a

common language, bilingualism continues.

2. Tocqueville was a_____________________________ who saw both the good

and bad sides of the American character traits.

3. Ethnic diversity is a____________________________ affecting American life.

4. Think of the traditional values in this book as

_____________________________ that you can test against your own

observations.

5. The United States now takes in more_______________________________

each year than all other_______________________________ combined.

6. When several cultures exist together successfully in a society, there is

7. The________________________

white in the twenty-first century.

in the United States is becoming less

EXPAND YOUR KNOWLEDGE

Updated: 18th July 2015 — 3:16 pm