Equality for All?

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section 1

A First Look

A. Background Building

DIRECTIONS: Look at the illustration on the preceding page and answer the

following questions.

1. What is happening in the illustration?

2. What does the man with the stop sign think?

3. How does the black woman feel?

4. This woman is a member of a minority group because she is black. What are some other minority groups in the United States?

5. What does opportunity for all mean?

6. The following is a quote from the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

"No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in. . . any program receiving federal financial assistance."

Explain what this quote means in your own words.

B. Topic

DIRECTIONS: Before you begin to read, look at these topics. There is one topic for each paragraph. Look quickly at the reading to find these topics. Do not read every word at this point. Write the number of the paragraph next to the topic of that paragraph.

1. ________ American society

2. _______ more about discrimination

3. _______ equal opportunity laws

4. _______ questions about possibilities for minorities

5. _______ definitions of prejudice and discrimination

6. _______ examples of self-made men

С. Reading

DIRECTIONS: Now read.

Can a poor country boy from the hills of Kentucky become 1

President of the United States? Can a poor, black, city boy become 2

wealthy and famous all over the world? Can a woman become Pres – 3

1 ident of the United States? The answer to all of these questions is 4

"yes, ideally it is possible." The key word here is "ideally." Ideally, 5

everyone in the United States, whether rich or poor, has an equal 6

opportunity to succeed. 7

This concept of equal opportunity to succeed is a basic idea in 8

capitalism, the economic system of the United States. Social classes 9

or levels are not permanently established. The terms upper class or 10

2 upper-middle class are mainly financial terms, although an upper – 11

class person has been wealthy for a long time. There are no kings, 12

queens, or other royalty in the United States, and a person’s back – 13

ground is not as important as that person’s position now. Perhaps 14

because the United States is a country of immigrants, people who 15

often had very little when they arrived in the country, Americans 16

value the ability to go "from rags to riches." 17

The first two examples in the first paragraph are descriptions 18

of self-made men, who started life with almost nothing and became 19

successful. These men are President Abraham Lincoln and the boxer 20 Mohammed AU. These two men did not have the advantages of 21 wealth, good educational opportunities, or contact with powerful 22 people. However, they were ambitious and wanted to succeed. 23

3 Of course, it is unrealistic to say that everyone who wants to 24

succeed will be able to succeed. But there are laws which give every 25 person in the United States the chance or opportunity to succeed. 26

These laws guarantee equal opportunities for education and em – 27

ployment to all people. These laws are especially important to mem – 28

bers of minorities (i. e., any group of people not white, Protestant, 29

and male in the United States) such as Hispanics, women, blacks, 30 and many other ethnic, religious, and racial groups. Minority groups 31

may find that they do not have equal education, housing, or em – 32

ployment. They may have difficulty finding jobs or getting 33

adequate pay because of prejudice. 34

4 Prejudice is a negative feeling against a person because of his 35

or her race, religion, or background. For example, if a factory owner 36 does not like Mexican-Americans in general, this person is preju – 37 diced. A prejudiced person actually prejudges a whole group of peo – 38

pie and feels negatively about all the people in that group. If a fac – 39

tory owner feels prejudiced, this is not a problem. The problem 40

arises when this factory owner refuses to hire someone because of 41

5 prejudice. If an employer gives a job to a man instead of a woman 42

when both are equally qualified, this is called discrimination. Dis- 43 crimination in housing, education, and employment is illegal in this 44 country. 45

The word discrimination really means the observation of dif – 46

ferences. Obviously, there are differences in people. However, equal 47

opportunity laws try to prevent differences from becoming prob – 48

lems when people want to succeed. In education, employment, and 49

many other areas, discrimination is a bad word. 50

React

Underline one sentence which you found interesting in the reading. Read it to a partner.

D. Scanning/Vocabulary Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Scan the reading for these words. Write the number of the line where you find them. Then compare the meaning in the sentence to the meaning of the wordfsj on the right. Are the words similar or different? Write similar or dif­ferent on the line.

LINE

NUMBER

Part 2

Подпись: DIRECTIONS: Find a word in the reading which has a meaning similar to theDIRECTIONS: Find a word in the reading which ha following. The line number is given.

1. chance (7)

2. do well (7)

3. classes (9)

4. fixed (10)

5. benefit (21)

6. determined (23)

7. enough (34)

8. give a job (41)

9. able (43)

10. against the law (44)

E. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. According to the author, a woman____ become President of the United States.

a. can never b. can ideally с probably will not

2. Abraham Lincoln and Mohammed Ali were born_____

a. rich b. black с poor

3. Lincoln and Ali succeeded__ wealth, good educational opportunities, and pow­

erful friends.

a. because of b. in order to get с without

4. Generally speaking, social classes in the United States are_____

a. permanently b. royalty с financial

established divisions

5. It is______ to refuse to give someone a job because of race, religion, or sex.

a. intelligent b. illegal с guaranteed

6. Americans value the concept of equal opportunity because____

a. many Americans b. Americans like с many poor

are wealthy money immigrants

became rich

7. There____ laws which guarantee equal opportunity.

a. are no b. should be с are

8. __ is illegal.

a. Discrimination b. A minority с Prejudice

9. Discrimination is a problem because it does not give people

Подпись: a. the same chance to succeed b. an easy life 10. The author thinks that a. there is equality in the United States b. prejudice is illegal с prejudice

с discrimination is a
serious problem

section 2

Look Again

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. Laws can____ discrimination, but not prejudice.

Подпись: guarantee nobody employment A female the right amount feeling about them. advantageous hire prejudice unrealistically rent because of prejudice a. succeed b. prevent с

2. A famous person is a person ___ knows.

a. everybody b. somebody с

3. A king and queen are members of____

a. immigrants b. royalty с

4. is not a member of a minority in the United States.

a. A black Puerto Rican b. A white male с

5. The food was adequate. Everyone had____ to eat.

a. a lot b. very little с

6. A person who is prejudiced against Hispanics has a(n)__

a. negative b. beneficial с

7. I want a job. Will you _ . me in your company?

a. provide b. succeed с

8. She refused. Her answer was____

a. positive b. negative с

9. I bought the house because I plan to live here____

a. permanently b. negatively с

10. Discrimination in housing means that a landlord does not

a. there is no apartment b. the people are с

available unpleasant

В. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following.

1. In paragraph 1, the author gives three examples of opportunities to succeed. What are they?

1.

2.

3.

2. In paragraph 2, the author explains the concept of equal opportunity in the United States with two ideas. What are they?

3. What are the names of the two men given as examples in paragraph 1?

4. In what areas do minorities find prejudice?

5. Give one example of prejudice and one of discrimination. Remember discrimination is an action; prejudice is a feeling.

С Think About It

1. When Irish immigrants first came to Boston, they sometimes read job notices that said "No Irish need apply." Many subsequent groups experienced discrimination. Is there discrimination in your country against immigrants?

2. Why do you think that people discriminate? Why are they prejudiced?

D. Survey Reading

There are laws in the United States to protect people from discrimination and to help them to succeed. In the 1950s, success was a house in the suburbs. Look at Figure 1 and answer the questions which follow.

1. What is the most important element of success for Americans according to this survey?

2. According to the survey, do Americans want to be rich and famous?

3. Does this survey show that friendship is important to Americans?

4. Which is more important to Americans according to this survey: good jobs, fam­ilies, friends, or education? Put these in order of importance.

Подпись: 136

Подпись: Very Important Elements of Success in America The numbers on the graph are percentage of respondents who say this is a "very important” element of their idea of success Source: "The Wall Street Journal/American Dream” survey conducted by The Roper Organization, February 1987 Figure 1

Equality for All?

section 3

Contact a Point of View

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A. Background Building

Look at the picture. Who are the two people? What does the man mean by pointing his finger toward the door? In the United States when can you ask an employee to leave his or her job? How about in your country?

B. Timed Reading

DIRECTIONS: Read the following point of view and answer the questions in four minutes.

Silvia Garcia, a black woman, applied for a job at a small company. One question on the application form was "Who else lives at your home

address?" Ms. Garcia did not answer this question. She left the space blank.

The owner of the company, Jeff Erler, was a very religious man. He had started the company himself and felt that his employees were like his extended family. Mr. Erler interviewed Ms. Garcia personally. He no­ticed that she had marked "single" on her application and he was sur­prised that she was not married at her age. When he mentioned this to her, she just laughed and did not comment. He decided that she was a very nice woman. He also needed to hire members of minorities, so he hired her.

Ms. Garcia did very well in the company. In a few months she got a raise and was happy with the additional money. However, seven months after Mr. Erler hired her, he overheard a conversation in the cafeteria. Two other workers were talking about her and "the guy she’s living with."

Mr. Erler called Ms. Garcia into his office that afternoon. He ques­tioned her about her living situation and she admitted that she was living with her boyfriend. Mr. Erler told her that he was very sorry, but he did not want immoral people to work in his company. At first, she could not believe that Mr. Erler was serious. She told him that he had no right to call her immoral because she was living with her boyfriend. She said that as long as she was a good worker, her personal life was her own business and that he could not make judgments about it. Mr. Erler fired Ms. Gar­cia.

DIRECTIONS: Read each of the following sentences carefully to determine whether each is true (T), false (F), or impossible to know (ITKj.

1. Ms. Garcia was a member of a minority group.

2. When Ms. Garcia applied for the job, she lived with her

boyfriend.

3. Ms. Garcia was not a good worker.

4. Mr. Erler was a religious man.

5. All Mr. Erler’s employees were religious.

6. Ms. Garcia’s boyfriend worked in the same company.

7. No one at the company except Mr. Erler knew that Ms.

Garcia was living with someone.

8. Ms. Garcia told Mr. Erler that she was not living with her

boyfriend.

9. Ms. Garcia was thirty years old.

10. Ms. Garcia lost her job at Mr. Erler’s company.

С. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the word(s) with the same meaning as the italicized word(s).

1. Who else lives at this address?

Подпись:a. related b. in addition с

2. The page was blank.

a. empty b. written с

3. Leave a space between the lines of our compositions,

a. meaning b. certain area с

4. I applied for a loan at the bank.

a. questioned b. gave money с

5. A politician often says, "No comment. "

a. I have nothing to say b. I don’t know с

6. Our office hired someone just yesterday.

a. fired b. gave more money to с

7. I spoke with the director personally.

a. myself b. quickly с

8. Her personal life is very interesting.

a. social b. private с

9. If he steals money from poor people, he is immoral.

a. rich b. arrested с

10. I need a raise. I cannot support myself with this salary.

a. job b. higher pay с

for the same job

D. React

DIRECTIONS: Reread the information about Silvia Garcia and Jeff Erler. Then answer the following questions and share your ideas with the class.

1. What do you think Ms. Garcia does next?

________ collects unemployment insurance?

________ looks for another job?

?

2. Do you think that Mr. Erler was fair to Ms. Garcia?

3. Do you think that Mr. Erler did anything illegal when he fired her?

4. Did Mr. Erler discriminate against her because of: her race?

her sex? her religion?

her personal background? her moral values?

5. Do you think this is discrimination? Is it an unfair employment pro­cedure?

Optional Activity

If you decide that this case is an example of discrimination or unfair employment procedures, take it to court. Act out the parts of these peo­ple:

Silvia Garcia

Steve Kennedy, Silvia’s boyfriend

Jeff Erler

Alice Lee, Jeffs secretary

The lawyers who help Silvia Garcia

The lawyers who help Jeff Erler

A judge, who also organizes the trial

A jury of people who decide the final judgment

Step 1: Meet in groups to decide what roles and positions you will take. Step 2: Meet in court and present the evidence.

Step 3: Wait for the jury’s decision.

E. Word Analysis Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Look at the endings below for nouns and verbs. Are the italicized words in

the sentences nouns or verbs?

Подпись: VERBSПодпись: produce adjust realize NOUNS

production

adjustment

reality

1. I’ll help you familiarize yourself with the city.

2. Discrimination in hiring is illegal.

3. How did you solve that problem?

4. Could you repeat that please?

5. I made an adjustment in the plan.

6. I don’t have a solution to that problem.

7. His identity is still a question.

8. What is your community like?

9. We can’t produce that many machines.

10. Can you identify the problem?

Part 2

1. Study the meanings of these: Another example:

judi-

judge

prejudice

pre-

before

preregister

post-

after

postpone

equ-

equal

adequate

leg-

law

legislature

2. Complete the sentences with one of the above words.

a. They never finished the project because the money the government gave for the

project wasn’t_____________________

b. The____________________ made a decision when they met last month.

с If you don’t______________________ for next semester, you will have to wait

in long lines when classes start.

d. The landlord wouldn’t let her rent the apartment when he found out she was a

student. She felt that this was______________________

e. I hate to do my homework, so I usually____________________ it for as long

as possible.

3. Write the meaning of the boldfaced word on the line.

a. There are some inequities in the new tax law, but I’m sure the government will

work them out eventually._________________________

b. The judge hasn’t made a decision yet in the case.____________________

c. I got a ticket for parking in an illegal space._____________________

d. I can’t prevent you from going there, but I think you’re making a mistake.

e. I’d like to do postgraduate work in biochemistry.

Look Back

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. The____ man did not like his daughter’s boyfriend because he was Chinese.

a. prejudiced b. advantageous с adequate

2. I don’t know if this color is green or gray. I don’t have very good color_____

a. prejudice b. discrimination с equality

3. There were two men and twelve women in the class. The men were in the.__

a. minority b. percentage с opportunity

4. I found a job easily because my father____ me to work for him.

a. hired b. gave с refused

5. I decided to quit before the owner____ me.

a. raised b. fired с felt

6. With a degree in business, she was highly_____ to work in the company.

a. qualified b. adequate с prejudiced

7. There is a six-month_____ on this radio. If it breaks in that time, you can get

another one for free.

a. age b. guarantee с qualification

8. I____ a raise. I don’t know if I will get one or not.

a. prevented b. fired с applied for

9. I can’t____ him. He doesn’t answer his phone.

a. adjust to b. contact с give

10. I am very_____ I want to succeed and be at the top of my profession.

a. ambitious b. economic с self-made

В. Matching

DIRECTIONS: Find the word or phrase in column В which has a similar mean­ing to a word in column A. Write the letter of that word or phrase next to the word in column A.

А

В

1.

succeed

a.

smaller group

2.

illegal

b.

not legal

3.

opportunity

с

give a job to

4.

minority

d.

enough

5.

refuse

e.

chance

6.

adequate

f.

do well

7.

hire

g.

say no

8.

employee

h.

even though

9.

although

i.

the same

10.

equal

j.

worker in a company or business

С Synthesis Questions

1. Choose a famous person. Go to the library and find some information about that person in the encyclopedia or other books.

2. What does success mean to you? Number the following in order of importance for you. Put " 1 " next to the most important and " 2" next to the second most important and so forth.

For me, success means having. . . .

_____ a lot of money

_____ a good job

_____ friends

____ a husband or wife

_____ children

_____ a home

a car

D. Vocabulary Preview

DIRECTIONS: Circle all the words you can find below. Most of the words are from Chap­ter 9.

unjustpotmnesacaientreqppitdiscriminationmfeirnprejudiceseparatelecaqillegalwomi

nqualifiedseriousgamitovblacksmubvetumidanpersistbinocitaminminorityduncacola

mprotectionheritagenolitdisadvantageinequalityraminracialslavestinomparticipation

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