Category Contact U. S. A

Introduction to the Teacher

Contact U. S.A. is a reading and vocabulary text for high-beginning and low-intermediate ESL/EFL students. Although its structure and exer­cises are aimed primarily at developing academic reading skills and vo­cabulary, its content (a look at changes in values and lifestyles in the United States) is highly appropriate for all non-native English speakers, including immigrants, students in higher educational institutions, and students of English in foreign countries.

Reading

Reading for high-beginning and low-intermediate students is some­times a frustrating experience. Books that are appropriate in terms of the students’ active English proficiency are often not challenging for adult readers, either in structure or content. Readings that match the student’s intellectual or conceptual interest level usually have exercises requiring a more advanced active English proficiency. We have written this book on the premise that adult students at this level of English proficiency are able to read and understand more in English than they are able to pro­duce actively. Therefore, although the readings may appear to be difficult for students at this level at first glance, the first analytical exercises are relatively simple, requiring only passive reading and vocabulary skills. We feel that these types of reading and vocabulary skills are important for students to develop, particularly because the analysis of a reading beyond their proficiency level is a process that students confront in stan­dardized tests in English. The reading exercises in this book progress from main idea to inference. The following is a general outline of each chapter.

Chapter Outline

Section 1: A First Look

A. Background Building

B. Topic (skimming reading for topic of paragraphs)

Xi

C. Reading

D. Scanning/Vocabulary (similar-different analysis of vocabulary in the context of the reading)

E. Reading Comprehension (multiple choice)

Section 2: Look Again

A. Vocabulary (multiple choice)

B. Reading Comprehension (cloze summary or outline)

C. Think About It (active comprehension analysis of reading)

D. Reading (graphs or short readings related to the topic—can be used out of sequence in the chapter)

Section 3: Contact a Point of View

A. Background Building

B. Timed Reading (a personal observation followed by True, False, or Impossible to Know statements)

C. Vocabulary

D. React (semi-controlled discussion activities)

E. Word Analysis (Part 1: progressing through the book from recogni­tion of function and form to production of appropriate forms; Part 2: stems and affixes)

Section 4: Look Back

A. Vocabulary (multiple choice)

B. Matching (synonyms)

C. Synthesis Questions (questions for discussion and suggestions for ex­tension activities)

D. Vocabulary Preview

The teacher’s guide contains Vocabulary Review Tests and Answer Keys (both for chapter exercises and the review tests).

Vocabulary

This book was written with the firm belief that dictionaries are gen­erally a reading inhibitor rather than a reading enhancer. With this in mind, the cardinal rule of the book is NO DICTIONARIES ALLOWED. The meaning of much of the vocabulary is implied within the reading passage, as the students discover when they complete the first vocabu-

lary exercise, which requires them to analyze words within the context of the reading and compare them to other words that they already know. The vocabulary exercises and the inaccessibility of a dictionary force the students to look for meaning within the context, an essential reading skill. This book serves as a vocabulary builder because we reuse the vo­cabulary throughout the book so that students are forced to recall vocab­ulary from previous chapters, where it is used in different contexts. This leads to actual acquisition of the words in the text.

Подпись: Content
From our experience as teachers, we feel that adult language learners need stimulating reading materials that (1) provide them with background information about American culture, (2) encourage their awareness of their environment, (3) prepare them to deal with the environ­ment of the United States, and (4) let them draw their own conclusions about the United States. The presentation of information about the life and values in the United States is a very touchy subject; students are sensitive to "pro-America" rhetoric. In spite of this wariness, however, students want to understand some of the basic values and issues in the United States. We have chosen themes that have always generated a lot of discussion in class and about which students have strong opinions. The focus of these readings is primarily cross-cultural. The readings enable students and the teacher to examine American culture, to evaluate their feelings, and to redefine their positions in this culture or in their own cultures. We have tried to present, as far as possible, an apolitical por­trayal of the United States. The first reading in every chapter is general, giving the overall idea and the key vocabulary items connected to the subject. The timed reading is a personal point of view about some aspect of the subject. For example, the timed reading in the chapter on immigra­tion is from the point of view of a native American. The chapter on race issues has a second reading about reverse discrimination. These points of view are closely tied in with the speaking activities in each chapter, encouraging students to express their ideas about te subject. Since these readings are our personal impressions, and are, as such, debatable, we encourage teachers to feel free to contribute their own personal points of view and to express their cultural perspectives.

Подпись: Introduction to the Student

Contact U. S.A. has two purposes:

1. to improve your READING ability, and

2. to improve your VOCABULARY.

Each chapter in the book has:

A First Look: exercises to determine general meaning of reading and vo­cabulary items.

A. Background Building

B. Topic

C. Reading

D. Scanning/Vocabulary (similar/different)

E. Reading Comprehension

Look Again: more detailed exercises in reading comprehension and vocab­ulary

A. Vocabulary

B. Reading Comprehension С React

D. Reading

Contact a Point of View: additional reading:

A. Background Building

B. Timed Reading Exercise С Vocabulary

D. React

E. Word Analysis

Look Back: review of the vocabulary from the chapter:

A. Vocabulary

B. Matching

C. Synthesis Questions

D. Vocabulary Preview

The first chapter, "Impressions of the United States," has special instructions for each exercise. These instructions will teach you how to use the book effectively.

Retirement

 

image083

Подпись: 1A First Look

A. Background Building

1. Look at the illustration on the previous page and answer the ques­tions below.

a. What are these two people doing?

b. Do you think that they are on vacation? с How old do you think they are?

d. "Retire" means to stop working when you are old. What do you think a "retirement city" is?

2. Complete these sentences about your culture.

a. People usually retire when they are____________

b. After retirement, they spend their time__________________ ing

(verb)

B. Topic

DIRECTIONS: Before you begin to read, look at these topics. There is one topic for each paragraph. Look quickly at the reading to find these topics. Do not read every word at this point. Write the number of the paragraph next to the topic of that paragraph.

1. the financial problems of retirement

2. the value of work in America

3. answers to some problems

4. _______ the positive side of retirement

5. _______ explanation of retirement

С. Reading

DIRECTIONS: Now read.

Work is a very important part of life in the United States. 1

When the early Protestant immigrants came to this country, they 2

brought the idea that work was the way to God and heaven. This 3

attitude, the Protestant work ethic, still influences America today. 4

1 Work is not only important for economic benefits, the salary, but 5

also for social and psychological needs, the feeling of doing some – 6

thing for the good of the society. Americans spend most of their 7

lives working, being productive. For most Americans, their work 8

defines them: They are what they do. What happens, then, when a 9

person can no longer work? 10

Most Americans stop working at age sixty-five or seventy and 11

retire. Because work is such an important part of life in this culture, 12

retirement can be very difficult. Retirees often feel that they are 13

2 useless and unproductive. Of course, some people are happy to re – 14

tire; but leaving one’s job, whatever it is, is a difficult change, even 15

for those who look forward to retiring. Many retirees do not know 16

how to use their time or they feel lost without their jobs. 17

Retirement can also bring financial problems. Many people 18

rely on Social Security checks every month. During their working 19

years, employees contribute a certain percentage of their salaries 20

to the government. Each employer also gives a certain percentage 21

to the government. When people retire, they receive this money as 22

income. These checks do not provide enough money to live on, how – 23

ever, because prices are increasing very rapidly. Senior citizens, 24

3 those over sixty-five, have to have savings in the bank or other re – 25

tirement plans to make ends meet. The rate of inflation is forcing 26

prices higher each year; Social Security checks alone cannot cover 27

these growing expenses. The government offers some assistance, 28

Medicare (health care) and welfare (general assistance), but many 29

senior citizens have to change their lifestyles after retirement. They 30

have to spend carefully to be sure that they can afford to buy food, 31

fuel, and other necessities. 32

Of course, many senior citizens are happy with retirement. 33

4 They have time to spend with their families or to enjoy their hob – 34

bies. Some continue to work part time; others do volunteer work. 35

Some, like those in the Retired Business Executives Association, 36

even help young people to get started in new businesses. Many re – 37

tired citizens also belong to "Golden Age" groups. These organi – 38

zations plan trips and social events. There are many opportunities 39

for retirees. 40

American society is only beginning to be concerned about the 41

5 special physical and emotional needs of its senior citizens. The gov – 42

ernment is taking steps to ease the problem of limited income. They 43

are building new housing, offering discounts in stores and museums 44

and on buses, and providing other services, such as free courses, 45

food service, and help with housework. Retired citizens are a rapidly 46

growing percentage of the population. This part of the population 47

is very important and we must respond to their needs. After all, 48

every citizen will be a senior citizen some day. 49

React

Underline one interesting idea from the reading. Read it aloud several times to yourself to understand its meaning more fully.

D. Scanning/Vocabulary Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Write the line number where you find the wordfsj. Then choose the best meaning for the word as it is used in that sentence.

1.

work

line number__

a. material

b. jobs

с

business

2.

influences

line number__

a. changes

b. affects

с

compares

3.

economic

line number__

a. partial

b. financial

с

supportive

4. productive

line number__

a. useful

b. unnecessary

с

professional

5.

retirement

line number

a. stopping work

b. employment

с

taking a rest

6.

employer

line number

a. worker

b. boss

с

businessman

7.

afford

line number

a. be able to buy

b. contribute

с

prevents

8. volunteer

line number

a. unpaid

b. salaried

с intentional

9. contribute

line number

a. include

b. take

с give

10. provide

line number

a. give

b. prepare

с offer

Part 2

DIRECTIONS: Find a word in the reading which has a meaning similar to the following. The line is given.

1. belief (4)_______________________________

2. pay (5)

3. useful (8)______________________________

4. unimportant (14)________________________

5. depend on (19)__________________________

6. part (21)_______________________________

7. salary (23)_____________________________

8. needed things (32)_______________________

9. older (33)______________________________

10. worried (41)____________________________

11. reduced prices (44)______________________

12. answer (48)____________________________

E. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. The author believes that work first became important to Americans because of pressure.

a. economic b. religious с family

2. Protestants believed in____

a. high salaries b. America с hard work

3. Senior citizens have to have other savings because Social Security checks____

a. are not enough b. come monthly с cover growing

expenses

4. When Americans stop work, it is difficult for them to____

a. feel productive b. get Social Security с be religious

checks

5. According to the author,____ Americans stop work at age sixty-five or seventy.

a. some b. a few с most

6. The author mentions____ examples of discounts.

a. two b. three с four

7. Many retirees feel useless because they____

a. do volunteer work b. have limited incomes с aren’t working

8. The last sentence of the reading means that each person———

a. is important b. is a citizen с will grow old

9. A salary is a____ benefit.

a. psychological b. social с financial

10. Many people who retire feel unproductive because their work——

a. defined their lives b. was unimportant с was difficult

section 2

Look Again

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1.

image085 image086

Clothing is an example of a(n)____________

Подпись: a. volunteer 4. Every year I a. limitb. employer с employee

a percentage of my income to my church.

b. receive с contribute

Подпись: 5. Every year he_ a. gets by to work at the school; he never gets paid.

b. volunteers с provides

6. The older children in a family always____ the younger ones.

Подпись:a. establish b. influence

7. I don’t have enough money to buy a new car. I cannot_

a. demand b. provide

8. Your salary is very low. Do you have any other___ ?

a. income b. interest

9. His physical condition is unbelievable: he’s seventy and he_

a. no longer b. then с still

10. He is a—- volunteer here at the hospital; he is a big problem and no help.

a. productive b. useful с useless

В. Vocabulary/Comprehension

Подпись: free useless retire

Подпись: retirement work sixty-five hobby Подпись: relax productive important

DIRECTIONS: Complete the reading summary with the words from this list. Try to complete it first without looking back at the reading.

Generally speaking, Americans (1)_______________ until they are (2)

__ Then they (3) (4)______________________ can

be very difficult for people because their work was so (5)__________

to them. Often people work so much that they do not take the time to

(6)____________ or to have a(n) (7)_____________ Then when they

retire, they don’t know what to do with all the (8)______________ time

on their hands. They also can feel (9)_____________ because they are

not being (10)_____________ Retirement isn’t easy.

C. Think About It

1. One problem for senior citizens is financial. List some sources of in­come that retirees in the U. S. have.

2. Does your country have a social security system similar to the one in the United States? How does the system work? Do senior citizens have enough money to live on?

3. Another problem that retirees face is what to do with all their free time. What are some of the activities mentioned in the reading?

4. What do you think are the most serious problems of old age? Write #1 next to the most serious problem for the elderly.

In your home country

__ financial________ physical______ psychological______ housing

In the United States

__ financial________ physical______ psychological______ housing

D. Graph

DIRECTIONS: The question of growing old is different for different countries. Study the fol­

lowing chart and answer the questions below.

Estimated population in selected countries for the year 1990.

PERCENTAGE

PERCENTAGE

MEDIAN

OF POPULATION

OF POPULATION

AGE*

FROM AGE 0-14

65 AND OLDER

Australia

31.8

22.5

10.8

Brazil

22.7

35.2

4.7

France

38.5

19.2

13.0

Greece

36.5

21.1

13.4

Ghana

16.5

47.1

2.8

Indonesia

22.0

35.7

3.8

Japan

36.8

19.2

11.4

Korea

24.1

32.4

4.2

Lebanon

21.5

35.3

5.1

Malaysia

21.9

35.7

3.9

Mexico

19.6

39.1

3.7

Sweden

39.0

16.0

17.6

Switzerland

38.1

16.6

14.8

U. S.S. R.

31.5

25.1

9.4

U. S.

32.8

22.1

12.2

Venezuela

20.8

38.3

3.7

•median age means that 50 percent of the population is older than that age and 50 percent is younger.

Source: World Population Prospectus: Estimates and Projections as Assessed in 1984. New York: United

Nations, 1986.

There are great differences in the age of the populations in the various countries.

1. Which country has the largest percentage of retired people?______

2. Which country has the largest percentage of children?___________

3. In which country is more than 50 percent of the population over 39?

4. Find two countries which have similar population trends? Explain why.

a.

b. ___________

If these population trends continue, think about what will happen in dif­ferent countries, and how the number of older people and the number of children will affect life in those countries.

____________________________________

Contact a Point of View

image093

A. Background Building

Read these two opinions about retirement. Which is more positive? Which do you think your parents will have when they retire? How about you?

1. "I’ve never been happier. I finally have time to do all the things that I had always wanted to do."

2. "I have too much time and I don’t always know what to do with my­self. I almost never see my friends from work."

B. Timed Reading

DIRECTIONS: Read the following point of view and answer the questions in

four minutes.

I retired about a year ago. The company had a big party for me and gave me a gold watch for more than thirty years of service. At the party, everyone said to me, "Retirement is a time to do all the things you didn’t have time to do. It’s a new beginning." I can’t say that I dislike retire­ment, but after working for thirty-five years, day after day, it’s hard to adjust to all this free time.

Just after I retired, Peg and I went to visit John, Jr. in Chicago and Ann in New York. We really had a good time. We enjoy being together. In fact, John, Jr. invited us to come and live with him. He knows that living on Social Security checks and a small retirement plan is not easy. But we decided not to move in with him. We have our lives and he and his wife have theirs. We are going to stay here in town. We may move to an apartment, because the house is too big for only the two of us and it’s hard to keep clean. Peg is having some trouble with her back; she’s seeing the doctor tomorrow.

Money isn’t a serious problem for us because we do have some sav­ings, but we have to make careful decisions about what we can afford. We’re not used to living on a fixed income, but we make ends meet. I still belong to the club and I play cards there once a week, and we spend time with other retired couples in the area. My only regret is that I didn’t spend enough time thinking about retirement before it happened.

DIRECTIONS: Read each of the following statements carefully to determine whether each is true (Tj, false (F), or impossible to know (ITKj.

1. This man retired about six months ago.

2. ________ The people at the party were negative about retiring.

3. _ _ _ This man’s son is married.

4. _______ This man worked for forty years in the company.

5. ________ He and his wife are moving in with John, Jr.

6. ________ This man dislikes retirement.

7. ________ He and his wife live only on their savings and a retire­

ment plan.

8. ______ This man has other children at home.

9. This man has some physical problems.

10. This man and his wife are going to move from the town.

C. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Fill in the blanks with vocabulary from the reading. Make necessary changes in the form of the word.

1. serious/regret/plans

I have some_____________________________________________ about my

____________________ to live away from my family.

2. in fact/begin/back/trouble

Little by little he is_____________________ to feel better.________________ ,

he has no_____________________ at all with his_____________________ now.

3. dislike/decisions/money

I_______________ making__________________ about__________________

4. limited/afford/make ends meet

I can’t__________________________ to live on a_______________ income be­cause I can’t

D. React

DIRECTIONS: Show your opinion of the following statements by putting і next to your first preference, 2 next to your second choice, and so on through 6. Share your ideas with a classmate or the class.

When my parents grow old and retire, I hope that they live

________ with me.

________ with my brother.

________ with my sister.

________ some time with me, and some time with my brother and/or

sister.

________ near me, so I can visit them.

________ independently of the family.

Often a real problem happens when one parent dies and the other is alone. If my father died, I’m sure that my mother would

________ continue living where she is living.

________ move in with me.

live with my brother.

live with my sister.

move to a smaller residence.

move to a nursing home (a home for the elderly).

E. Word Analysis

Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Choose the appropriate word form in each sentence.

1. special

1. What is the

of this restau-

specialty

rant?

2. pain

2. What a

in the neck!

painful

painless

3. simple

3. She is a

child.

simplicity

4. knowledge

4. Her

of physics surprised me.

knowledgeable

5. beneficial

5. It is

to visit another country.

benefit

6. cultural

6. Differences in

often cause se-

culture

rious trouble.

7. familiarity

7. I was unaccustomed to the

in

familiar

that society.

8. fear

8. He is without

fearless

fearful

9. impressionable

9. She is very young and

impression

10. senseless

10. What is the real

of this word?

sense Part 2

1. Study the meanings of these:

Another example:

-er the subject trainer

of the stem________________________________

-ее the object of trainee_____________________

the stem

(Note: – er endings are more common than – ее endings)

popul-

people

population

cent-

hundred

percentage

psych-

the mind

psychological

2. Complete the sentences with one of the above words.

a. What is the_____________________ of your city?

b. Sometimes retirement is a big_____________________ adjustment. It takes

time to get used to it.

с In the circus, an animal______________________ works very closely with the

animal to teach it tricks.

d. What____________________ of the people voted against gun control?

e. My sister is a___________________ in computer programming. She’s learn­

ing a lot in her program.

3. Write the meaning of the boldfaced word on the line.

a. The city celebrated its bicentennial with a parade and other special activities.

b. The man tried to kill his family. He was psychotic.

с The manager showed the trainees around the store.

d. The law was extremely unpopular._____________________

section 4

Look Back

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence. 1. Poverty in a wealthy society is a(n)_______________________________ problem.

a. mobile

b. ethical

с

spacious

2.

She is in her last year of high school. She is a ■

a. junior

b. senior

с

beginner

3.

A car is a(n)

in the suburbs.

a. aspect

b. establishment

с

necessity

4.

Don’t worry. Everything will be fine. Heaven will

a. produce

b. provide

с

make ends meet

5.

This coat is

You can have it with 15 percent off.

a. salaried

b. increasing

с

discounted

6.

The price of gold

daily.

a. costs

b. inflates

с

develops

7.

I can with twenty dollars a day.

a. afford

b. make ends meet

с

look for

8.

This hat is

in the rain. It’s too small and doesn’t cover my head.

a. fixed

b. useless

с

casual

9.

Our culture

our thoughts and actions.

a. influences

b. gets started

с

contains

10.

He’s a very good student. , he’s the best in the class.

a. For example

b. In fact

с

Therefore

В. Matching

DIRECTIONS: Find the word or phrase in column В which has a similar mean­ing to a word in column A. Write the letter of that word or phrase next to the word in column A.

A

В

1.

afford

a. useful

2.

provide

b. affect

3.

necessities

c. value

4.

influence

d. part

5.

ethic

e. needed things

6.

financial

f. be able to buy

7.

growing

g. economic

8.

percentage

h. respond

9.

answer

i. increasing

0.

productive

j. give

С Synthesis Questions

Visit a retirement community or an old age home. Work with your teacher to arrange your visit. Some possibilities: prepare some enter­tainment for the people there; become a "conversation partner" with someone there; prepare some snacks for some of the people there and have some informal discussions with them; ask to interview them about questions you have prepared.

A recent study about old age showed that older people were happy with their lives but that young people thought that senior citizens were lonely and worried. Think about a senior citizen you know. Is that person lonely or unhappy? What does this person do with his or her free time?

The United States is often criticized for being a country where every­one wants to be young, especially older people. Think about older peo­ple you have seen in the United States. Write some positive aspects of their lives and some negative aspects:

Positive Negative

4. There is a well-known expression in English: "You’re only as old as you feel." What do you think this means? Do you agree?

D. Vocabulary Preview

DIRECTIONS: What smaller words can you find in the following words?

equalize

(1)

wealthy

(7)

differences

(2)

upper

(8)

successful

(3)

royalty

(9)

equality

(4)

background

(10)

restrooms

(5)

powerful

(11)

protection

(6)

minority

(12)

E. Skimming

DIRECTIONS:

Look quickly at the next page.

Answer these questions.

1. What book is this from?

2. What information is listed?

F. Scanning

Answer these questions as quickly as possible.

3. Find an organization that helps seniors with health problems.

4. Find three organizations that help seniors get good food to eat.

5. Find an organization that helps a senior who cannot drive.

6. Find an organization that helps Indochinese and Chinese senior cit­izens.

7. Where can seniors go if they want people to socialize with?

8. What is your reaction to the information in Figure 1?

Security-Senior

 

869

 

Senior Citizens Serv

Organizations (Cont’d)

_____________ ✓

ELM BAPTIST CHURCH-

Sun Sch 9:30 AM-Wor 11 AM & 6 PM Senior Adults-Wed 10:30 AM-7 PM Bible Study-Childrens Clubs-Youth Spanish Speaking Services Available Rev John Miller-Sr. Pastor Richard Lee-Assistant Pastor N46th & Sunnyside 491-4354

GOLDEN CARE PLUS

Associated With City Hospital

1550 N 115th…………. 365-7587

Green Senior Center 525 N 85th 447-7841

Hamption House For Senior Citizens

5225 15th NE………….. 524-0473

Hanley Nutrition Site 1210SW 136th 448-5768

Hanley Senior Center 1210 SW 136th 244-3686

HOME REPAIRS F0RTHE ELDERLY

500 30th St…………… 447-7802

HOMESHARING F0RSENI0RS

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800…. 448-5725

Independent Living 1715 E Cherry 322-3637

Indochina/Chinese Elderly Association

409 Maynard St………… 624-9577

June Valley Senior Center

105 2nd Ave NE………… 392-2381

LA EASEL RESTAURANT

252416th……………… 329-3837

Lifetime Learning Center 202 John 283-5523

Lifetime Services Inc

800 5th Ave Suite 800….. 622-8220

MEALS-ON-WHEELS

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800…. 448-5767

North Senior Center

9929 NE 180th 8th……… 487-2441

Northwest Senior Center 4429 32 NW 447-7811

Norton Day Care For Adults

9250 14th NW………….. 784-8285

Nutrition Projects for Senior Citizens

1601 2d Suite 800……… 448-5768

Pederson John Social Services

3015 37th SW………….. 935-3020

Red Cross Aid To Aging

1900 25th Av S………… 323-2345

Senior Center of Weston

4217 SW Oregon………… 932-4044

SENIOR MEAL PROGRAM

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800….. 448-5768

SENIOR INFORMATION & ASSISTANCE

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800 …. 448-3110

SENIOR REFERRAL SERVICE…… 344 5767

Senior Rights Assistance

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800…. 448-5720

SENIOR RIGHTS ASSISTANCE

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800… 448-5720

Senior Services

211 Burnett N :………… 235-2533

SENIOR SERVICES OF SEATTLE/KING COUNTY

1601 2nd Ave Suite 800…. 448-5757

Central Area

500-30th Ave S……….. 447-7816

Greenwood

525 N 85th St………… 447-7841

First Hill

800 Jefferson St……… 448-5748

Southeast Seattle

7315-39th Ave S………. 722-0317

Northwest

5429-32nd Ave NW……… 447-7811

Tallmadge Hamilton House

5225-1 5th Ave NE……… 524-0473

Wallingford

4649 Sunnyside Ave…….. N 447-7825

West Seattle

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Figure

Impressions . of the United States

section 1

A First Look

A. Background Building

la. What are the first things you think of when you hear the words, "United States?" What words come into your head? Write them here.

image004Example:

Share your ideas with a classmate.

Подпись: POSITIVE Подпись: NEGATIVE

b. Look at your words again. Are they positive, negative, or neutral (not positive negative)? Write them again here.

What were most of your words? Why?

2a. What is in the illustration on page 1? Write the words here.

b. Why are these things in the picture? What other things do you think should be in the picture?

В. Topic

DIRECTIONS: Before you begin to read, look at these topics. There is one topic for each paragraph. Look quickly at the reading to find these topics. Do not read every word at this point. Write the number

of the paragraph next to the topic of that paragraph.

1. 2____ positive and negative ideas about the United States

3. this book about the United States

4. _______ first thoughts about the United States

C. Reading

DIRECTIONS: Now read, but try to think about groups of words, not individual words. Do

not stop if you do not know the meaning of a word.

The United States. What is your first thought when you hear 1

these words? Is it an image of something typically American?[1] Per – 2

haps you think of hamburgers and fast-food restaurants. Or per – 3

1 haps you have an image of a product, such as an American car or 4

Coca-Cola®. Some people immediately think of American universi – 5

ties. Others think of American companies. Many Americans think 6

of the red, white, and blue flag when they think of the United States. 7

There are many images associated with the name of a country. 8

There are also many ideas or concepts associated with the 9

words United States. Some people think of a positive concept, such 10

as freedom, when they think of the United States. Other people 11

think of a negative concept, such as American involvement in other 12

2 countries. Many Americans have both positive and negative ideas 13

about their country. When they think of the lifestyle or the scenery 14

(landscapes such as mountains or beaches at the ocean), they feel 15

very positive and proud of their country. But sometimes, when they 16

think about the government, they think about nuclear war and in – 17

ternational problems. Then they have negative feelings about the 18

country. 19

These images and ideas are all impressions of a country, the 20

United States. People form these impressions in many different 21

ways. They see American products and advertisements. They read 22

3 newspapers and hear people talk about the United States. They 23

probably see American movies and television shows. These impres – 24

sions are always changing. As people receive more information, they 25

adjust their images and concepts of a country. 26

Knowledge of a country includes many things. Typical prod – 27

ucts and actions by governments are part of this knowledge. But 28

the most important thing in learning about a country is knowledge 29

4 of the people of that country. What are their customs and lifestyles? 30

How do they raise their children? What are their values and beliefs? 31

How do they feel about work and entertainment, about time, about 32

friendships? 33

In this book you will read about many aspects of the United 34

States. You will read about lifestyles, institutions, values, and is – 35

sues which are all part of American life and culture. Before you be – 36

5 gin each chapter, think of your own impressions of the subject, 37

American women, American cities, American families. Use your own 38 impressions to compare with and question the impressions of the 39 authors. Contact the U. S.A. 40

The following vocabulary exercise will help you understand the meaning of new words in the reading without a dictionary.

D. Scanning/Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: It is important to be able to find information quickly when you read. This is scanning. Scan the reading for these words. Write the number of the line where you find them.

Example: car______ 4______ automobile similar

Now look at the word on the right. Is its meaning similar or different from the meaning of car? The meanings of car and automobile are similar, so you write similar on the line. Remember that the word similar does not mean exactly the same; it means that the two words are close in meaning.

Try another example:

first l last different

In this case, you find first in line 1 of the reading. The meanings are different, so you write different on the line. If you are not sure about the meaning of a word, read the sentence where you find it again. Try to

understand its meaning from the other words in the sentence and the reading.

LINE SIMILAR OR

NUMBER DIFFERENT?

1. thought

idea

2. image

picture

3. ideas

concepts

4. perhaps

maybe

5. positive

negative

6. scenery

landscapes

7. impressions

first ideas

8. form

make

9. includes

has inside

10. typical

common

11. products

customs

12. adjust

change a little

13. proud

ashamed

14. lifestyle

institutions

15. compare with

look at side by side

How much of the reading did you understand without using a dic­tionary? Do the next exercise to find out.

E. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. There are____ examples given of images associated with the name United States.

a. six b. seven с eight

2. An example of a positive concept is___

a. nuclear war b. freedom с advertisement

3. According to the reading, Americans are about their lifestyle,

a. scenery b. negative с happy

4. According to the author, Americans_____ have negative thoughts about their

country.

a. always b. never с sometimes

5. The author thinks that you, the reader, have_____ the United States already.

a. no knowledge of b. many impressions с negative ideas about

of

6. In paragraph 5, the author gives the idea that your ideas will—–

a. always be the same b. be wrong с sometimes be differ-

as the author’s ideas ent from the

author’s ideas

7. People probably have____ impressions of American involvement in other coun­

tries.

a. positive b. negative с no

8. Foreign business people probably think of an American__ when they hear the

words United States.

a. product b. landscape с institution

9. The term American is used because_____

a. North American is b. people in the United с the book is about

too long States use it Canada

10. People’s impressions_____ when they learn more about a country.

a. are negative b. are never different с change

Equality for All?

image094

 

section 1

A First Look

A. Background Building

DIRECTIONS: Look at the illustration on the preceding page and answer the

following questions.

1. What is happening in the illustration?

2. What does the man with the stop sign think?

3. How does the black woman feel?

4. This woman is a member of a minority group because she is black. What are some other minority groups in the United States?

5. What does opportunity for all mean?

6. The following is a quote from the Civil Rights Act of 1964:

"No person in the United States shall, on the ground of race, color or national origin, be excluded from participation in. . . any program receiving federal financial assistance."

Explain what this quote means in your own words.

B. Topic

DIRECTIONS: Before you begin to read, look at these topics. There is one topic for each paragraph. Look quickly at the reading to find these topics. Do not read every word at this point. Write the number of the paragraph next to the topic of that paragraph.

1. ________ American society

2. _______ more about discrimination

3. _______ equal opportunity laws

4. _______ questions about possibilities for minorities

5. _______ definitions of prejudice and discrimination

6. _______ examples of self-made men

С. Reading

DIRECTIONS: Now read.

Can a poor country boy from the hills of Kentucky become 1

President of the United States? Can a poor, black, city boy become 2

wealthy and famous all over the world? Can a woman become Pres – 3

1 ident of the United States? The answer to all of these questions is 4

"yes, ideally it is possible." The key word here is "ideally." Ideally, 5

everyone in the United States, whether rich or poor, has an equal 6

opportunity to succeed. 7

This concept of equal opportunity to succeed is a basic idea in 8

capitalism, the economic system of the United States. Social classes 9

or levels are not permanently established. The terms upper class or 10

2 upper-middle class are mainly financial terms, although an upper – 11

class person has been wealthy for a long time. There are no kings, 12

queens, or other royalty in the United States, and a person’s back – 13

ground is not as important as that person’s position now. Perhaps 14

because the United States is a country of immigrants, people who 15

often had very little when they arrived in the country, Americans 16

value the ability to go "from rags to riches." 17

The first two examples in the first paragraph are descriptions 18

of self-made men, who started life with almost nothing and became 19

successful. These men are President Abraham Lincoln and the boxer 20 Mohammed AU. These two men did not have the advantages of 21 wealth, good educational opportunities, or contact with powerful 22 people. However, they were ambitious and wanted to succeed. 23

3 Of course, it is unrealistic to say that everyone who wants to 24

succeed will be able to succeed. But there are laws which give every 25 person in the United States the chance or opportunity to succeed. 26

These laws guarantee equal opportunities for education and em – 27

ployment to all people. These laws are especially important to mem – 28

bers of minorities (i. e., any group of people not white, Protestant, 29

and male in the United States) such as Hispanics, women, blacks, 30 and many other ethnic, religious, and racial groups. Minority groups 31

may find that they do not have equal education, housing, or em – 32

ployment. They may have difficulty finding jobs or getting 33

adequate pay because of prejudice. 34

4 Prejudice is a negative feeling against a person because of his 35

or her race, religion, or background. For example, if a factory owner 36 does not like Mexican-Americans in general, this person is preju – 37 diced. A prejudiced person actually prejudges a whole group of peo – 38

pie and feels negatively about all the people in that group. If a fac – 39

tory owner feels prejudiced, this is not a problem. The problem 40

arises when this factory owner refuses to hire someone because of 41

5 prejudice. If an employer gives a job to a man instead of a woman 42

when both are equally qualified, this is called discrimination. Dis- 43 crimination in housing, education, and employment is illegal in this 44 country. 45

The word discrimination really means the observation of dif – 46

ferences. Obviously, there are differences in people. However, equal 47

opportunity laws try to prevent differences from becoming prob – 48

lems when people want to succeed. In education, employment, and 49

many other areas, discrimination is a bad word. 50

React

Underline one sentence which you found interesting in the reading. Read it to a partner.

D. Scanning/Vocabulary Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Scan the reading for these words. Write the number of the line where you find them. Then compare the meaning in the sentence to the meaning of the wordfsj on the right. Are the words similar or different? Write similar or dif­ferent on the line.

LINE

NUMBER

Part 2

Подпись: DIRECTIONS: Find a word in the reading which has a meaning similar to theDIRECTIONS: Find a word in the reading which ha following. The line number is given.

1. chance (7)

2. do well (7)

3. classes (9)

4. fixed (10)

5. benefit (21)

6. determined (23)

7. enough (34)

8. give a job (41)

9. able (43)

10. against the law (44)

E. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. According to the author, a woman____ become President of the United States.

a. can never b. can ideally с probably will not

2. Abraham Lincoln and Mohammed Ali were born_____

a. rich b. black с poor

3. Lincoln and Ali succeeded__ wealth, good educational opportunities, and pow­

erful friends.

a. because of b. in order to get с without

4. Generally speaking, social classes in the United States are_____

a. permanently b. royalty с financial

established divisions

5. It is______ to refuse to give someone a job because of race, religion, or sex.

a. intelligent b. illegal с guaranteed

6. Americans value the concept of equal opportunity because____

a. many Americans b. Americans like с many poor

are wealthy money immigrants

became rich

7. There____ laws which guarantee equal opportunity.

a. are no b. should be с are

8. __ is illegal.

a. Discrimination b. A minority с Prejudice

9. Discrimination is a problem because it does not give people

Подпись: a. the same chance to succeed b. an easy life 10. The author thinks that a. there is equality in the United States b. prejudice is illegal с prejudice

с discrimination is a
serious problem

section 2

Look Again

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. Laws can____ discrimination, but not prejudice.

Подпись: guarantee nobody employment A female the right amount feeling about them. advantageous hire prejudice unrealistically rent because of prejudice a. succeed b. prevent с

2. A famous person is a person ___ knows.

a. everybody b. somebody с

3. A king and queen are members of____

a. immigrants b. royalty с

4. is not a member of a minority in the United States.

a. A black Puerto Rican b. A white male с

5. The food was adequate. Everyone had____ to eat.

a. a lot b. very little с

6. A person who is prejudiced against Hispanics has a(n)__

a. negative b. beneficial с

7. I want a job. Will you _ . me in your company?

a. provide b. succeed с

8. She refused. Her answer was____

a. positive b. negative с

9. I bought the house because I plan to live here____

a. permanently b. negatively с

10. Discrimination in housing means that a landlord does not

a. there is no apartment b. the people are с

available unpleasant

В. Reading Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Complete the following.

1. In paragraph 1, the author gives three examples of opportunities to succeed. What are they?

1.

2.

3.

2. In paragraph 2, the author explains the concept of equal opportunity in the United States with two ideas. What are they?

3. What are the names of the two men given as examples in paragraph 1?

4. In what areas do minorities find prejudice?

5. Give one example of prejudice and one of discrimination. Remember discrimination is an action; prejudice is a feeling.

С Think About It

1. When Irish immigrants first came to Boston, they sometimes read job notices that said "No Irish need apply." Many subsequent groups experienced discrimination. Is there discrimination in your country against immigrants?

2. Why do you think that people discriminate? Why are they prejudiced?

D. Survey Reading

There are laws in the United States to protect people from discrimination and to help them to succeed. In the 1950s, success was a house in the suburbs. Look at Figure 1 and answer the questions which follow.

1. What is the most important element of success for Americans according to this survey?

2. According to the survey, do Americans want to be rich and famous?

3. Does this survey show that friendship is important to Americans?

4. Which is more important to Americans according to this survey: good jobs, fam­ilies, friends, or education? Put these in order of importance.

Подпись: 136

Подпись: Very Important Elements of Success in America The numbers on the graph are percentage of respondents who say this is a "very important” element of their idea of success Source: "The Wall Street Journal/American Dream” survey conducted by The Roper Organization, February 1987 Figure 1

Equality for All?

section 3

Contact a Point of View

image100

A. Background Building

Look at the picture. Who are the two people? What does the man mean by pointing his finger toward the door? In the United States when can you ask an employee to leave his or her job? How about in your country?

B. Timed Reading

DIRECTIONS: Read the following point of view and answer the questions in four minutes.

Silvia Garcia, a black woman, applied for a job at a small company. One question on the application form was "Who else lives at your home

address?" Ms. Garcia did not answer this question. She left the space blank.

The owner of the company, Jeff Erler, was a very religious man. He had started the company himself and felt that his employees were like his extended family. Mr. Erler interviewed Ms. Garcia personally. He no­ticed that she had marked "single" on her application and he was sur­prised that she was not married at her age. When he mentioned this to her, she just laughed and did not comment. He decided that she was a very nice woman. He also needed to hire members of minorities, so he hired her.

Ms. Garcia did very well in the company. In a few months she got a raise and was happy with the additional money. However, seven months after Mr. Erler hired her, he overheard a conversation in the cafeteria. Two other workers were talking about her and "the guy she’s living with."

Mr. Erler called Ms. Garcia into his office that afternoon. He ques­tioned her about her living situation and she admitted that she was living with her boyfriend. Mr. Erler told her that he was very sorry, but he did not want immoral people to work in his company. At first, she could not believe that Mr. Erler was serious. She told him that he had no right to call her immoral because she was living with her boyfriend. She said that as long as she was a good worker, her personal life was her own business and that he could not make judgments about it. Mr. Erler fired Ms. Gar­cia.

DIRECTIONS: Read each of the following sentences carefully to determine whether each is true (T), false (F), or impossible to know (ITKj.

1. Ms. Garcia was a member of a minority group.

2. When Ms. Garcia applied for the job, she lived with her

boyfriend.

3. Ms. Garcia was not a good worker.

4. Mr. Erler was a religious man.

5. All Mr. Erler’s employees were religious.

6. Ms. Garcia’s boyfriend worked in the same company.

7. No one at the company except Mr. Erler knew that Ms.

Garcia was living with someone.

8. Ms. Garcia told Mr. Erler that she was not living with her

boyfriend.

9. Ms. Garcia was thirty years old.

10. Ms. Garcia lost her job at Mr. Erler’s company.

С. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the word(s) with the same meaning as the italicized word(s).

1. Who else lives at this address?

Подпись:a. related b. in addition с

2. The page was blank.

a. empty b. written с

3. Leave a space between the lines of our compositions,

a. meaning b. certain area с

4. I applied for a loan at the bank.

a. questioned b. gave money с

5. A politician often says, "No comment. "

a. I have nothing to say b. I don’t know с

6. Our office hired someone just yesterday.

a. fired b. gave more money to с

7. I spoke with the director personally.

a. myself b. quickly с

8. Her personal life is very interesting.

a. social b. private с

9. If he steals money from poor people, he is immoral.

a. rich b. arrested с

10. I need a raise. I cannot support myself with this salary.

a. job b. higher pay с

for the same job

D. React

DIRECTIONS: Reread the information about Silvia Garcia and Jeff Erler. Then answer the following questions and share your ideas with the class.

1. What do you think Ms. Garcia does next?

________ collects unemployment insurance?

________ looks for another job?

?

2. Do you think that Mr. Erler was fair to Ms. Garcia?

3. Do you think that Mr. Erler did anything illegal when he fired her?

4. Did Mr. Erler discriminate against her because of: her race?

her sex? her religion?

her personal background? her moral values?

5. Do you think this is discrimination? Is it an unfair employment pro­cedure?

Optional Activity

If you decide that this case is an example of discrimination or unfair employment procedures, take it to court. Act out the parts of these peo­ple:

Silvia Garcia

Steve Kennedy, Silvia’s boyfriend

Jeff Erler

Alice Lee, Jeffs secretary

The lawyers who help Silvia Garcia

The lawyers who help Jeff Erler

A judge, who also organizes the trial

A jury of people who decide the final judgment

Step 1: Meet in groups to decide what roles and positions you will take. Step 2: Meet in court and present the evidence.

Step 3: Wait for the jury’s decision.

E. Word Analysis Part 1

DIRECTIONS: Look at the endings below for nouns and verbs. Are the italicized words in

the sentences nouns or verbs?

Подпись: VERBSПодпись: produce adjust realize NOUNS

production

adjustment

reality

1. I’ll help you familiarize yourself with the city.

2. Discrimination in hiring is illegal.

3. How did you solve that problem?

4. Could you repeat that please?

5. I made an adjustment in the plan.

6. I don’t have a solution to that problem.

7. His identity is still a question.

8. What is your community like?

9. We can’t produce that many machines.

10. Can you identify the problem?

Part 2

1. Study the meanings of these: Another example:

judi-

judge

prejudice

pre-

before

preregister

post-

after

postpone

equ-

equal

adequate

leg-

law

legislature

2. Complete the sentences with one of the above words.

a. They never finished the project because the money the government gave for the

project wasn’t_____________________

b. The____________________ made a decision when they met last month.

с If you don’t______________________ for next semester, you will have to wait

in long lines when classes start.

d. The landlord wouldn’t let her rent the apartment when he found out she was a

student. She felt that this was______________________

e. I hate to do my homework, so I usually____________________ it for as long

as possible.

3. Write the meaning of the boldfaced word on the line.

a. There are some inequities in the new tax law, but I’m sure the government will

work them out eventually._________________________

b. The judge hasn’t made a decision yet in the case.____________________

c. I got a ticket for parking in an illegal space._____________________

d. I can’t prevent you from going there, but I think you’re making a mistake.

e. I’d like to do postgraduate work in biochemistry.

Look Back

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. The____ man did not like his daughter’s boyfriend because he was Chinese.

a. prejudiced b. advantageous с adequate

2. I don’t know if this color is green or gray. I don’t have very good color_____

a. prejudice b. discrimination с equality

3. There were two men and twelve women in the class. The men were in the.__

a. minority b. percentage с opportunity

4. I found a job easily because my father____ me to work for him.

a. hired b. gave с refused

5. I decided to quit before the owner____ me.

a. raised b. fired с felt

6. With a degree in business, she was highly_____ to work in the company.

a. qualified b. adequate с prejudiced

7. There is a six-month_____ on this radio. If it breaks in that time, you can get

another one for free.

a. age b. guarantee с qualification

8. I____ a raise. I don’t know if I will get one or not.

a. prevented b. fired с applied for

9. I can’t____ him. He doesn’t answer his phone.

a. adjust to b. contact с give

10. I am very_____ I want to succeed and be at the top of my profession.

a. ambitious b. economic с self-made

В. Matching

DIRECTIONS: Find the word or phrase in column В which has a similar mean­ing to a word in column A. Write the letter of that word or phrase next to the word in column A.

А

В

1.

succeed

a.

smaller group

2.

illegal

b.

not legal

3.

opportunity

с

give a job to

4.

minority

d.

enough

5.

refuse

e.

chance

6.

adequate

f.

do well

7.

hire

g.

say no

8.

employee

h.

even though

9.

although

i.

the same

10.

equal

j.

worker in a company or business

С Synthesis Questions

1. Choose a famous person. Go to the library and find some information about that person in the encyclopedia or other books.

2. What does success mean to you? Number the following in order of importance for you. Put " 1 " next to the most important and " 2" next to the second most important and so forth.

For me, success means having. . . .

_____ a lot of money

_____ a good job

_____ friends

____ a husband or wife

_____ children

_____ a home

a car

D. Vocabulary Preview

DIRECTIONS: Circle all the words you can find below. Most of the words are from Chap­ter 9.

unjustpotmnesacaientreqppitdiscriminationmfeirnprejudiceseparatelecaqillegalwomi

nqualifiedseriousgamitovblacksmubvetumidanpersistbinocitaminminorityduncacola

mprotectionheritagenolitdisadvantageinequalityraminracialslavestinomparticipation

Look Again

Look at the corrected answers for the vocabulary exercise (exercise D) in section 1. Use the similar words to understand the meanings and to answer this vocabulary exercise. If the words in the following exercise are not in exercise D, look for them in the reading in order to understand their meanings. Do not use a dictionary.

A. Vocabulary

DIRECTIONS: Circle the letter of the choice that best completes each sentence.

1. I want to know more about the_____ of the people: what they do every day and

how they spend their free time.

a. work b. lifestyle с products

2. My mother and my father work;____ of my parents work.

a. friendships b. some с both

3. I am wearing a suit today because I want to make a good_____

a. involvement b. custom с impression

4. Some people are happy about the changes, but____ are unhappy.

a. institutions b. personals с others

5. On the train I looked out the window at the_____

a. scenery b. products с customs

6. There are many different____ to the problem. It is not easy to understand.

a. images b. aspects с people

7. Schools and churches are___

a. lifestyles b. institutions с landscapes

8. My parents are very____ of me when I make good grades at school.

a. positive b. concept с proud

9. I am not_______ with him in any way.

a. involved b. entertained с valued

10. The two men work in different fields of study. They are not__________ each other.

a. associated with b. customs image of

React

Go back to the reading and put a question mark next to two or three sentences that you don’t understand very well. Discuss these sentences with your classmates and teacher.

Vocabulary/Comprehension

DIRECTIONS: Complete the reading summary with words from this list. Try to complete it first without looking back at the reading.

Подпись: ideas image impressions institutions Подпись: aspects countries freedom knowledge

lifestyles

negative

product

scenery

When people from other (1)__________________________ think about

the United States, they probably have many different (2)_________________

_____________ Some may have an (3)___________________________ of an

American (4)________________________ such as a big car or a hamburger.

Others may think of American (5)_________________________ such as uni­

versities.

People in the United States are proud of the beautiful (6)____________

_________________ They are also proud of the political (7)_______________

they have in this country, but some are concerned about American in­volvement in other countries.

The authors think that the most important thing in learning about another country is (8) of the people in that

Answers: “ •

1. British homemakers have different values from American homemakers. They want to spend a lot of time cooking for their families so they did not want an “instant” cake product.

2. The company thought that Americans and British homemakers had the same values. People speak Eng­lish in both countries, but the cultures of the U. S. and Britain are very different.

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